对学习者任务型学习法实践步骤之分析

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 The experiments were carried out through four stages: the first stage was the Pre-task, including Introduction and Instructions of tasks; the second stage was the Task Cycle, including planning, preparation,while-task and report of tasks; the third stage was the Language Focus Task, including analysis and practice of tasks; the fourth stage was the Follow-up Task, in which homework was assigned for students to go over the lessons.

  The experiments were carried out through four stages: the first stage was the Pre-task, including Introduction and Instructions of tasks; the second stage was the Task Cycle, including planning, preparation,while-task and report of tasks; the third stage was the Language Focus Task, including analysis and practice of tasks; the fourth stage was the Follow-up Task, in which homework was assigned for students to go over the lessons.
  1. Procedures of the Experiments
  The Pre-task stage was to create appropriate conditions for task activities. The steps were to develop relevant contexts, to set the purpose of tasks and to perform a linguistic instruction in order. Relevant contexts were built up by using the spoken anecdote to introduce the topic,which would enable students to engage in focused communication in the while-task step. Setting the purpose of tasks aimed at helping students to personally perceive the significance of tasks. A linguistic instruction was to identify the most frequent and typical language features which would be of most use to the students in the tasks.
  At the Task Cycle stage students first made plans and prepared for task activities. Task plans were made by an individual student and the group instead of by the teacher. Then they did the task themselves in pairs or in groups and reported their performances and reasons to the whole class. At every stage of the learning task the space of students’ mastery and self-control were maximized. By working through the problems students experienced a sense of achievement and confidence, which increased their learning motivation. The task-based learning aims at encouraging cooperative spirit rather than competition among each member of groups, so the principles of justice, equality, friendliness and trust to each student were stuck to at all times.
  2. Significance of the Present Study
  The current circumstances of the English language education in China inform us that it is not an easy work. Many students, when they get to junior middle schools, they begin to doubt their intelligence, they withdraw their learning motivation. They seem to lose their self-confidence, their active attitude for school, and their determination to do well. The students' quiet and non-participation in class often made class even more teacher-centered, and the learning motivation became less and less. So the students could just listen and go behind passively. For one obvious finding was that they didn't actually know what they were supposed to know. This could be found in the mistakes in their written work, in their nervousness in speaking, in their lack of confidence in answering questions and talking and in their performance in examinations.
  It is based on this case and requirements of our nation’s educational guideline that the exploration of how to help teachers employ the task-based learning approach to foster students’ learning motivation and how the strategies are used by middle school teachers at present is of great significance. So in this paper, the aim is at tackling these questions: the first one is to find out the theoretical relation between the learning motivation and the task-based learning approach, that is, whether or not the task-based learning approach provides motivational conditions for students to engage in learning process; the second one is to investigate some strategies on iwww.21cnlunwen.commproving students’ learning motivation with the using of the task-based learning approach; the third one is to arouse some teachers and researchers’ attention on how to foster students’ learning motivation in Chinese context.
  
  References:
  Ausubel, D. A. 1968.Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York: Holt, Rinehart& Winston.
  Brown, H. D. 1994. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, 3 rd edn. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
  Bligh, D. A. 1971.What's the Use of Lecturing? Devon, England: Teaching Services Centre, University of Exeter.
  Chomsky, N. 1976. Reflections on Language London: Temple Smith
  Crookes, G. and S. M. Gass. 1993. Tasks in a Pedagogical Context. Clevedon, UK: Multilinggual Matters.
  Csikszentmihalyi, M. and J. Nakamura.1989.The Dynamics of Intrinsic Motivation: a study of adolescents. In C. Ames and R. E. Ames (Eds.) Research on Motivation Education, vol.3, Goals and Cognitions. London: Academic Press.
  Donato, R. and D. McCormick.1994.A sociocultural perspective on language learning strategies: the role of mediation. The Modern Language Journal,78(4),453-64.

 
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